Systematic review: can induced pluripotent stem cells replace embryonic stem cells in Parkinson’s disease treatment?
Favian Narrainen | University of Warwick
The growing concern and difficulty behind using embryonic stem cells in stem cell therapy has resulted in the shift to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) in Parkinson’s disease treatment. However, there has not been a systematic review comparing the efficacy of both these stem cell types and whether iPSCs can equate to embryonic stem cells in Parkinson’s disease treatment.
To determine this, the effects of iPSCs and embryonic stem cells in 6-OHDA lesioned rodent models of Parkinson's disease over a 16-week period was systematically evaluated. The effect of the stem cells types was determined via amphetamine induced rotation behavioural analysis of rodent models of Parkinson’s disease. The databases searched to obtain the data include PubMed and Cochrane. From this search, three animal research studies were identified for each respective stem cell type.
Following quantitative analysis, the data indicated significant improvement in rotational behaviour in rodent models of Parkinson’s disease before and after stem cell therapy for both stem cell types (Induced pluripotent stem cell p-value = 0.007; Embryonic stem cell p-value = 0.003). Finally, both stem cell types were compared using two-way ANOVA and indicated no significant difference between rotational behaviour in rodent models of Parkinson’s disease (p-value = 0.777).
It may be concluded that iPSCs equate to embryonic stem cells in Parkinson’s disease treatment and can act as a replacement. This is a promising result for the upcoming Japanese clinical research project, which is using iPSCs to replace dopaminergic neurones of Parkinson’s disease sufferers.
Brain Tumour Diagnosis: Outcomes in 120 Biopsy and Craniotomy Procedures
Gabriela Anna Barzyk | University of Warwick
Brain, central nervous system and intracranial tumours account for the 9th most common cancer type in the UK. At the time of the investigation, University Hospital Coventry & Warwickshire neurosurgical team outlined the standard of a 3-week period between pre-surgery multidisciplinary team (MDT) meeting and the date of the surgical procedure. To analyse whether the trust is meeting its targets relating to craniotomy and biopsy, a retrospective audit of procedures carried out between May 2018 and June 2019 was undertaken.
Record identification took place via Clinical Results Reporting System, Refer A Patient and Senior Performance Analyst at the trust. Collated information included date of referral, date of MDT meeting, details of procedure, diagnosis, length of admission and mortality status as of January 2020. Patient data was anonymised, and trends were analysed.
120 patients were identified, with 38 biopsies and 82 craniotomies performed. The average length between MDT meeting and surgical procedure was 20.53(3-110) days, meeting the trust standard. Analysis of patient data revealed that data recording methods were not systematically uniform. Furthermore, a trend was identified where glioblastoma IV grade was the most common diagnosis at 41%, accounting for 62% of all deaths.
The audit identified the need to standardise reporting strategies. Further audit cycle implementing a reporting checklist is hoping to better this outcome. In addition, the study enabled focus on glioblastoma, where early-stage identification remains a huge challenge to care. With increased understanding of regional incidence, this can benefit local referral protocols.